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Topography of J&K 

Geologists accept that around ten crore years have passed when Kashmir Valley which was at one time a lake called Satisar came into its available structure.

For several million years Kashmir Valley should have stayed under Tethys Sea and the high sedimentary-rock slopes seen in the valley now were once submerged.

Geologists now accept that Kashmir Valley was prior influenced by quakes. Once there was such an overwhelming seismic tremor, to the point that it tore open the mountain divider at Baramulla and the water of the Satisar lake streamed out abandoning hook string mud on the edges of the mountains known as karewas. In this manner started to be the oval however sporadic Valley of Kashmir. The karewas being actually the leftovers of this lake affirm this perspective. The karewas are discovered basically to the west of the waterway Jhelum where these table-terrains achieve a stature of around 380 meters over the level of the Valley. These karewas project towards the east and look like tongue-molded goads with profound gorges.

Antiquated legends and mainstream conventions say that Samdimat Nagar, capital of the kingdom of Sundra Sena, was submerged as an aftereffect of a quake and the water that filled the region shaped the Wular Lake, the biggest new water lake in India. The most seasoned volcanic rocks are still found at Shankaracharya slope.

At the point when the entire Valley of Kashmir was submerged this hillock was the first bit of dry area lying as a volcanic island.

Centrality of its name 

Students of history say that Kashmir Valley was initially known as Kashyapmar or the habitation Kashyap Rishi. It is said that the Rishi once went on a journey to Kashmir. When he came to Naukabandan close Kaunsarnag through Rajouri, he executed Bahudev, the Giant of Satisar, at the appeal of the individuals and let the water of the lake stream out close Baramulla. The area, in this manner, came to be known as Kashyampar, which a while later changed into Kashmar and from Kashmar to Kashmir. At the same time a few students of history are of the supposition that when the populace of Kash standing settled here forever the valley came to be known as Kashmir. Kashmir is known by numerous different names too. The Greeks called it Kaspeiria, while the chinese named it Shie-inor Kia-Shi-Lo. The Tibetans called its Kanapal and Dards named it Kashart.

Circumstance, Location, Area and Extent

The domains of Jammu, Kashmir, Ladakh and Gilgit structure the State of Jammu and Kashmir. The condition of Jammu and Kashmir, which had prior been under Hindu rulers and Muslim sultans, got to be a piece of the Mughal Empire under Akbar from 1586. After a time of Afgan standard from l756, it was added to the Sikh Kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1820 Maharaja Ranjit Singh made over the domain of Jammu to Gulab Singh. In 1846 Kashmir was likewise made over to Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar. Ladakh was added by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1830. In this manner this northernmost state was established by Maharaja Gulab Singh in 1846 and was the greatest royal state in India before the parcel of the nation in August 1947.

Around then the aggregate territory of the state was 2,22,236 sq. km. Pakistan attacked the State in October 1947. Indian powers pushed Pakistan back however in 1949 when a truce line was drawn around 33% of the territory i.e. 78932 sq. km. i.e. the entire of Gilgit, Mirpur, Kotli and a piece of Poonch came into the ownership of Pakistan, deserting just 1,43,300 sq. km. on the Indian side. Jammu, Udhampur, Kathua and Anantnag areas stayed unaffected.

Again in 1962 China possessed around 64000 sq. kms. in Ladakh known as Aksai Chin. Pakistan again made ownership over Chhamb, Deva, Chakla and Manawar picking up a range of 3999 sq. km. Along these lines complete territory left on the Indian side is around 128500 sq. km.

There are numerous low lying valleys in the state like Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Liddar Valley, yet the primary Valley is the valley of Kashmir, which is 100 kms. wide and 15520.3 sq. kms. in zone. Through this valley streams the waterway Jhelum with its tributaries. The stature of the valley above ocean level is around 1700 meters.

On the guide of India, the State of Jammu and Kashmir resembles a crown. The state is 640 km long from north to south and 480 kms. structure east to west. To its north lie Chinese and Russian Turkistan. On its east is Chinese Tibet. On the South and South-West lie the conditions of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. On the west is the North West Frontier Provinces of Pakistan, China and Russia. Afghanistan and Pakistan now have verged on the limits of the condition of Jammu and Kashmir. The closeness to the limits of outside nations has made the position of the State most imperative from military perspective.

The whole State lies somewhere around 32.17" and 36.58" North height and East to West, the State lies somewhere around 73.26" and 80.30" longitude. The standard time is 5.30 hours in front of Greenwich Mean Time as in whatever remains of India and has a distinction of thirty minutes with the neighborhood time.

In scope, the State of Jammu and Kashmir compares with South Carolina (North America), Fez (Morocco), Damascus, Baghdad and Peshawar (Pakistan).

Land Importance 

Kashmir is acclaimed for its excellence and regular landscape all through the world. Its high snow-clad mountains, grand spots, excellent valleys, waterways with super cold water, appealing lakes and springs and ever-green fields, thick woodlands and wonderful wellbeing resorts, improve its glory and are a wellspring of awesome fascination for sightseers.

It is additionally generally known for its various types of agrarian items, organic products, vegetables, saffron, herbs, minerals, valuable stones painstaking work like woolen floor coverings, shawls and finest sort of weaving on garments.

Amid summer, one can appreciate the magnificence of nature, trout angling, of all shapes and sizes amusement chasing and so on.; amid winter climbing mountain crests and games like skating and skiing on snow inclines are regularly delighted in.

Notwithstanding the above, Pilgrimage to celebrated religious altars of the Hindus and the Muslims make Kashmir an awesome vacation spot.

About Kashmir Sheik Sadia awesome Persian artist is accepted to have said, "If there is any paradise on earth, it is here in Kashmir."

Political Importance 

The condition of Jammu and Kashmir has obtained subsequent to the nineteenth century an exceptional geo-political status in the Indian sub-landmass. It has adjoining limits with Russia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, China and Tibet that merit consistent vigil and thusly it has made the State critical, topographically, politically, monetarily and from the military perspective.

Jammu and Kashmir state acquiesced to the Indian Union in 1947 after the allotment. Prior to the allotment in 1947, The English leaders of India took away Gilgit in 1946 from the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir on lease for a long time so they could check the progression of Russia towards India.

Physical Divisions, Mountains and Passes 

The State of Jammu and Kashmir falls in the colossal north-western, perplexing of the Himalayan ranges with stamped help variety, snow- topped summits, predecessor waste, complex land structure and rich calm widely varied vegetation.

Kashmir or the Jhelum Valley is arranged between the Pir Panjal extent and the Zanskar go and has a range of 15220 sq km. It is limited on all sides by mountains. The stream Jhelum, which streams out from the spring at Verinag in Anantnag region, goes through this Valley at a moderate pace and at last streams out through a slender chasm at Baramulla.

Regions of Srinagar, Anantnag, Baramulla, Kupwara and Pulwama lie in this valley. Normal stature of the valley is 1850 meters above ocean level however the encompassing mountains, which are dependably snow-clad, ascent from three to four thousand meters above ocean level. The surface of the valley is plain and overflows with springs, lakes and wellbeing resorts.

Rice is the principle harvest and natural products like fruits, pears, apricots, almonds, walnuts, peaches and cherries develop in wealth. The valley is additionally rich in woods. Mulberry trees develop in plenitude and are the pillar of silk industry in the Valley.

Summer is charming yet winters are extremely chilly and there is snowfall. It rains from the center of March to the center of May in the valley with yearly precipitation of around 75 cms. Street transport is normal in the valley however the stream Jhelum still serves as one of the method for transportation. There is additionally Air Service from Delhi and Jammu to Srinagar and Ladakh.

Kashmir is the home of painstaking work like wood cutting, papier-mache, rug, gabba and shawl making and weaving on garments.

Regular view of the valley pulls in a huge number of guests consistently from abroad. Individuals by and large talk Kashmiri and their normal dress is phiran, shalwar and a turban or a Kashmiri top.

There are additionally some little valleys in this district. On the north of Baramulla is Lolab valley which is 6 Kms in length and 4.4Kms wide. It has numerous glades and forests of walnut trees. Backwoods are thick to the point that they conceal towns in them. Nullah Sind is the biggest tributary of the waterway Jhelum.

The Nullah Sind valley is 100 Kms in length upwards and its view is differentiated. At the leader of the valley is the Zojilla pass which prompts Ladakh.

Towards Pehlgam lies the Liddar Valley. Its length is 64 Kms. It has little glacial masses, green glades, colossal rock dividers and chasms in its upper mountains. The way to the blessed Amarnath hole old fashioned through this valley. The Kolohai and Sheshnag streams join at Pahalgam to structure the Liddar River.

Mountains and their Passes 

Mountains have an uncommon topographical significance to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Kashmir valley is encased by high mountain-chains on all sides with the exception of specific passes and a slender chasm at Baramulla. There are Siwalik Hills towards the south and extremely grand mountains in the north, the tops of which dependably stay secured with snow. There are v
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